Golmud is also spelled as “Ge’ermu” in Chinese Pinyin , or “Kermo County” in Mogolian, with meaning of “A place where rivers gather”;
It is located in the west of Qinghai Province and the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is the 3rd largest city in Qinghai. It is also a strategic fortress connecting Tibet, Xinjiang, Gansu and a transportation hub in western China. The three main highways of Qinghai-Tibet, Qinghai-Xinjiang and Dunhuang-Golmud meet here ;
Nearly 90% of the county’s land belongs to the desert or gobi. Chaerhan Salt Lake, Kunlun Mountain Pass, and Golmud Populus euphratica forest, all of which are spectacular and beautiful. Unlike the Gobi in remote areas, the urban area of Golmud is an oasis in the vast Gobi. The city is lined with trees and flowers, and the suburban farmland is verdant and trees lined. The total area is nearly 120,000 square kilometers.
Golmud is 450 kilometers long from east to west, 225 kilometers wide from north to south, and has an area of 71414 square kilometers.
Best time to travel June, July, August, September
Local climate Continental plateau climate
Most popular sites
Yangtze River Source the Yangtze River originates from the glacier on the southwest side of Gladandong Ice Peak, the main peak of Tanggula Mountain, with an elevation of 6548 meters, divided into two semi-arc glaciers in the north and south. The source of the Yangtze River also contains resources such as crystal stone, pyrite, lead-zinc mine, plateau naked carp, and snow chicken.
The pond of Lady Queen Mother of the West It is a natural plateau lake, a sacred lake worshipped by Taoist believers. It is 250 kilometers away from Golmud city, with an altitude of more than 4,300 meters, a length of about 12,000 meters from east to west, a width of about 5,000 meters from north to south, and an area of more than 60 square kilometers.
Chaerhan Salt Lake is located in the south-central part of Qaidam Basin in Qinghai. Covering an area of 5,856 square kilometers, it is the largest potassium-magnesium salt deposit in China. There are several peculiar lakes in the Chaerhan Salt Lake, one by one, forming a rare “lake in the lake” in the world. The Wonderful Salt Bridge of Chaerhan Salt Lake is a flat and wide road built on the salt lake. This Salt bridge is unique in shape and distinctive. It has neither piers nor railings. They are all built with salt and are known as the “Wanzhang Salt Bridge”. The salt road is smooth and flat, no different from the asphalt road. Potholes appear on the pavement, which can be filled with brine.
Tanggula Mountain Pass is the boundary between Qinghai and Tibet, with an altitude of about 5,231 meters, and it is the highest point of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. It is 600 kilometers away from Golmud City. There is a monument for soldiers of the People’s Liberation Army who dedicated themselves to the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway, and another monument to the altitude. Tanggula Pass is the best place to enjoy the view of Tanggula Mountain
Golmud Geography and Climate
The urban area of Golmud City is located on the alluvial plain of Golmud River in the south-central Qaidam Basin, with an average elevation of 2780 meters. The entire jurisdiction is composed of two unconnected areas, the Qaidam Basin area and the Tanggula Mountain area.
Golmud City, with the Kokoxili Nature Reserve in the south, Dulan County in the east, Dachaidan and Mangya City in the north, and Ruoqiang County in Xinjiang to the west;
The Tanggula Mountain area is located in the southwest of the Qaidam Basin, bordering the Tibet Autonomous Region in the south and southwest, and adjacent to the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the east and north. It is 425 kilometers away from the downtown area of ??Golmud.
The climate of Golmud is a typical plateau continental climate. The average temperature in winter is around -6.5℃, and the average temperature in summer is around 17.5℃;
The average temperature in Tanggula Mountain in winter is around -15℃, and the average temperature in summer is around 7℃. The amount of precipitation is small, the rain and heat are in the same season, and the distribution of precipitation varies greatly with space.
The annual precipitation in the Tanggula Mountain area is about 10 times that of the Qaidam Basin; the overall distribution trend of precipitation in the Qaidam Basin is gradually decreasing from east to west. The annual sunshine hours are at most 3266 hours in the basin area and at least 2553 hours; in the Tanggula Mountain area, the maximum is about 3212 hours. The minimum is 2766 hours.
The annual average wind speed in the urban area of Golmud is 2.4 m/s and the maximum wind speed is 24.7 m/s; the annual average wind speed of Tuotuo River is 4.0 m/s and the maximum wind speed is 32.4 m/s.
The frost-free period in the Qaidam Basin area is significantly longer than that in the Tanggula Mountain area, about 200 days; the frost-free period in the Tanggula Mountain area is only about 20 days.
Population and ethnic groups
As of 2017, the total population of Golmud City was 137,570. Among the permanent population, the Han population accounted for 70%; the ethnic groups accounted for 30%. other ethnic minorities include Mongolian, Tibetan, Hui, Tu, Salar people…etc,
In ancient times, it was a region of the local nomad ethnic group.
At the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, it was land of the Tuyuhun regime
In AD 663, it became a land of Tubo kingdom, after Tuyuhun regime was destroyed by Tubo army
In the middle of the 13th century, the Golmud area was under juristiction of the Yuan Dynasty
In AD 1725, Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty, the Golmud area was under juristiction of Qing Dynasty
After the establishment of the Republic of China, it was under the administration of Dulan county
In 1956, the Golmud Working Committee was established as a county-level leading organization.
In 1960, the Golmud Working Committee was abolished and Golmud City was established.
In 1966, it was changed to Golmud County.
In 1980, Golmud City was officially established