Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is also known as Yushu Prefecture in short, Yushu means “relics” in Tibetan. It is an autonomous prefecture under jurisdiction of Qinghai Province. It is 738 kilometers from east to west and 406 kilometers from north to south with total area of 204,900 square kilometers (exclude Tanggula Mountain Town mananged by Golmud City). Capital town is Jiegu of Yushu City.
Yushu Prefecture has unique plateau natural landscapes and folk customs. There are Princess Wencheng Temple and Buddhist monasteries of many sects, as well as
national nature reserves of “Three Rivers”, “Longbao Beach” and “Kekexili”, and Yushu Horse Racing Festival is very popular in east Tibet of Kham, and Amdo
Yushu Prefecture has 1 county-level city and 5 counties under its jurisdiction.
Geography and climate
Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is adjacent to Haixi Mongolian Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in north, Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in east, Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province in southeast, Chamdo City and Nagqu City of Tibet Autonomous Region in south and southwest, and Bayingoleng Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang in its northwestern corner.
Qinghai-Tibet border is 2,385.85 kilometers long. Tanggula Mountain stretches to south, Kekexili Mountain and Bayan Har Mountain traverse north, with snowy peaks and glaciers. Yellow River and Lancang River both originated here.
General terrain of Yushu Prefecture is high in north and south and low in middle. Vast areas in central, western and northern regions have little up and down, and all are dominated by low mountains, hills, wide valleys, lake basins and beaches; east and south of central part are High Mountains and Canyon
Average elevation of Yushu prefecture is more than 4200 meters, the highest peak, Bukada Banfeng, is 6860 meters above sea level, and the lowest is Jinsha River, which is 3335 meters above sea level. Most areas are between 4000-5000 meters above sea level.
Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture has a towering terrain, complex topography, variable climate and harsh environment. Yushu Prefecture has long sunshine hours and strong solar radiation.
Population and ethnic group
As of end of 2018, total permanent population of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture was 416,600.
Among them, Tibetans account for 97% of total population, and Han, Hui, Tu, Mongolian, Salar, Miao, Buyi, Zhuang, Manchu, Korean and other ethnic groups account for 3% of total population.
Yushu Prefecture is with the highest proportion of Tibetan among 30 ethnic minority autonomous prefectures in China.
In ancient time, Yushu region was used to farm yak in west;
During Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Yushu region belonged to Subi Kingdom
In Tang Dynasty, Yushu region was under jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom
During Song Dynasty, Yushu region was a land of Nangqian regime,
In Yuan Dynasty, Yushu region was under jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom
In Ming dynasty, Yushu region was under jurisdiction of Do Kham
In Qing Dynasty, Yushu region was land of Nanqian Qianhusuo
In 6th year of Republic of China (1917), Yushu region was established
In 18th year of Republic of China (1929), Yushu County was established
In 1949, Yushu Special Region was established, with head office stationed in Yushu County.
In 1951, Yushu Special Region was changed to Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Region, with jurisdiction over 2 counties of Chindu and Nangqian; Yushu County was abolished.
In 1952, Yushu County was restored,and it was under direct jurisdiction of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Region
In 1955, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Region was abolished, and Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture was established, and Committee of Autonomous Prefecture Goverment was located in Yushu County;
In 2013,Yushu County was abolished, and a county-level Yushu City was established; Yushu City is under jurisdiction of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.