Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is also known as Yushu Prefecture in short, Yushu means “relics” in Tibetan. It is an autonomous prefecture under the jurisdiction of Qinghai Province. It is 738 kilometers from east to west and 406 kilometers from north to south with total area of 204,900 square kilometers (exclude Tanggula Mountain Town mananged by Golmud City). The capital town is Jiegu of Yushu City.
Yushu Prefecture has unique plateau natural landscapes and folk customs. There are Princess Wencheng Temple and Buddhist monasteries of many sects. There are three national nature reserves of “Three Rivers”, “Longbao Beach” and “Kekexili”. There is a grand annual Yushu Horse Racing Festival.
Yushu Prefecture has 1 county-level city and 5 counties under its jurisdiction.
County-level city: Yushu City
Geography and climate
Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is adjacent to Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the north, Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the east, Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province in the southeast, Changdu and Naqu regions of Tibet Autonomous Region in the south and southwest, and Bayingoleng Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang in its northwestern corner.
The Qinghai-Tibet border is 2,385.85 kilometers long. Tanggula Mountain stretches to the south, Kekexili Mountain and Bayan Har Mountain traverse the north, with snowy peaks and glaciers. The Yellow River and Lancang River both originated here.
The general terrain of Yushu Prefecture is high in the north and south and low in the middle. The vast areas in the central, western and northern regions have little ups and downs, and all are dominated by low mountains, hills, wide valleys, lake basins and beaches; the east and south of the central part are the High Mountains and Canyon
The average elevation of the prefecture is more than 4200 meters, the highest peak, Bukada Banfeng, is 6860 meters above sea level, and the lowest is the Jinsha River, which is 3335 meters above sea level. Most areas are between 4000-5000 meters above sea level.
Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture has a towering terrain, complex topography, variable climate and harsh environment. Yushu Prefecture has long sunshine hours and strong solar radiation.
Population and ethnic group
As of the end of 2018, the total permanent population of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture was 416,600. Among them, the Tibetans account for 97% of the total population, and the Han, Hui, Tu, Mongolian, Salar, Miao, Buyi, Zhuang, Manchu, Korean and other ethnic groups account for 3% of the total population. Yushu Prefecture is with the highest proportion of Tibetan among the 30 ethnic minority autonomous prefectures in China.
In ancient time, Yushu region was used to farm the yak in the west;
During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Yushu region belonged to the Subi Kingdom
In Tang Dynasty, Yushu region was under the jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom
During the Song Dynasty, Yushu region was the land of Nangqian regime,
In Yuan Dynasty, Yushu region was under the jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom
In Ming dynasty, Yushu region was under the jurisdiction of Do Kham
In Qing Dynasty, Yushu region was the land of Nanqian Qianhusuo
In the 6th year of the Republic of China (1917), Yushu region was established
In the 18th year of the Republic of China (1929), Yushu County was established, and governed the entire territory of this autonomous prefecture.
In 1949, Yushu Special Region was established, with the head office stationed in Yushu County.
In 1951, Yushu Special Region was changed to Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Region, with jurisdiction over 2 counties called Duo and Nangqian; the establishment of Yushu County was revoked.
In 1952, the establishment of Yushu County was restored and led by the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Region.
In 1955, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Region was changed to Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and the Committee of the Autonomous Prefecture Goverment was located in Yushu County;
In 2013,Yushu County was abolished, and a county-level Yushu City was established; Yushu City is under the jurisdiction of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.