Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, referred to as Golog Prefecture, is located in southeast of Qinghai Province, at source of Yellow River, and the capital of Golog Prefecture is Maqin County
It borders Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in east; Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture and Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in south; Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in west; Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in north; the average elevation is over 4,200 meters, and its total area is 76,400 square kilometers.
There are nature wonders of Amnye Machen Mountain, Nianbaoyuze Mountain, Zhaling Lake and Eling Lake; There are also ancient monasteries such as Rabgya, Baiyu, Chalang, etc. Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture includes “Three Rivers Source” Nature Reserve, which is the largest natural environmental protection area in China.
There are six counties under Golog Prefecture’s jurisdiction, including:
As of the end of 2017, there are over 70 tourist attractions in Golog Prefecture, including 2 national geological parks, 2 Four A-level scenic spots, and 15 Three A-level scenic spots. The historical sites include Rabgya monastery, Amnye Machen Mountain, Baiyun monastery, and Bull-Head Monument at the source of Yellow River. Natural landscapes include Eling Lake and Zhaling Lake, Toso Lake, Mogdewa Site, Nianbao Yuze, Baiyu Temple, Gesar King Lion and Dragon Palace, Mayu Cultural Center, Tang Dynasty Ancient road, Ma Kehe virgin forest, etc.
Geography and climate
Golog Prefecture is located between Bayan Har Mountain and Amnye Machen Mountain in hinterland of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Its terrain slopes from northwest to southeast. The northwest is high in elevation, with many hills, and its terrain is gentle; the southeast is low in altitude, with many mountains and steep and deep slopes.
Bayan Har Mountain stretches across from west to east, and it is main mountain range in Golog prefecture and constitutes watershed of two major water systems of Yangtze River and Yellow River. The main peak of Amnye Machen Mountain is 6282 meters above sea level, it is the highest mountain in Qinghai province, with developing modern glaciers.
Golog Prefecture is with an altitude of 4000-5000 meters. Its northwestern part is mostly between 4000-5000 meters above sea level, its topography is not large with elevation difference mostly between 500-1000 meters, and the slope is gentle;
Its altitude in southeast is between 3500-4000 meters above sea level, but its terrain is undulating, and the height difference is generally between 1000-2100 meters.
Golog Prefecture has typical plateau continental climate characteristics such as significant alpine hypoxia, low temperature, strong light radiation, and large temperature difference between day and night. It is easily affected by cold currents in north and northwest, with long sunshine hours, more rainfall (snow), large evaporation, and frequent strong winds. The average annual temperature is -4℃. The annual precipitation is 400-760 mm. Due to influenced by topography, there are relatively three precipitation areas.
In northwest of Madoi County, the average annual precipitation is 306 mm, and the annual rainfall days are about 120 days.
Population and ethnic group
As of the end of 2019, there are more than 210,000 permanent residents. Among them: Tibetan population is more than 190,000, accounting for 92% of total population; the agricultural and animal husbandry population is 161,942, accounting for 76.54% of total population. The urbanization rate of permanent residents is 28%. Hui nationality accounted for 0.96%; Tu nationality accounted for 0.24%; Salar nationality 0.14%; Mongolian nationality accounted for 0.06%; other ethnic minorities accounted for 0.18%
Golog was called “Elo” or “Gologke” in ancient times, it belonged to Qiang tribe.
In Tang Dynasty, it was under jurisdiction of central government of Tang dynasty
In Song dynasty, it was under jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom
In Yuan dynasty, it was ounder jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom.
In Ming dynasty, Golog area was under jurisdiction of Xining, belonging to Do me region
In Qing dynasty, Golog area was under jurisdiction of Do Kham
In 18th year of Republic of China (1929), it was under jurisdiction of Qinghai Province and setting up Golog Guoluo Administrative Inspection District
In 35th year of Republic of China (1946), the existing institutions were abolished, and Golog area was under management of local tibetan tribe chiefs.
In 1950, Golog District was established as a district directly under Qinghai Province.
In 1952, Golog Working Group was formed
In 1954, Golog District was changed to Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Region
In 1955, Golog Tibetan Autonomous Region was changed to Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture