Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, referred to as Huangnan Prefecture, is an autonomous prefecture under jurisdiction of Qinghai Province. It is located in eastern Qinghai. Prefefture seat is Tongren, also known as “Repkong”.
Huangnan Prefecture is 175 kilometers wide from east to west, 235 kilometers long from north to south, with a total area of 18,200 square kilometers.
Huangnan Prefecture is named after its location in south of Yellow River. It is adjacent to Hualong Hui Autonomous County and Xunhua Salar Autonomous County of Haidong City in northeast; its southeast is bordered by Xiahe, Luchu and Maqu counties of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province; the northwest and southwest are respectively bordered by Guide and Guinan, Tongde counties and Maqin County of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.
Huangnan Prefecture is popular with well-knowns scenic spots include Kambala National Geological Park, Lijiaxia Reservoir, National Thangka Scenic Area, Tongren Historical and Cultural City, Tibetan Buddhism Temple of Longwu monastery, Nanzong Nuns Temple, Rishi Stone Mani Wall, Henan Shenghu Fairy Cave, etc. At same time, Huang Nan’s national art is also admirable. Regong art, with its superb skills and numerous practitioners, is an important genre of Tibetan Buddhist art in China, and also Huangnan is with reputation of “Hometown of Tibetan Painting – Thangka “.
There are 287 tourist attractions and cultural relics protection units in this prefecture, including 8 national-level scenic spots and 87 provincial-level scenic spots. Nearly 20 national cultural tourism names have been obtained.
There are Kamba National Park, which has won three honors of National Geology, Forest Park and Water Conservancy Scenic Area, Henan Mongolian Prairie, Zeku and Nishijing Wall, Maixiu National Forest Park and so on.
The main natural and cultural landscapes include: Kanbula National Forest Park in Jianzha County, Lijiaxia Hydropower Station Dam and reservoir area scenic zone, Tongren historical and cultural city, Repkong Art and large-scale scroll painting “Chinese Tibetan Culture” recorded in Great World Guinness Records Art Painting Grand View, Tibetan Buddhist monastery Longwu monastery , Nanzong Nunnery, Maixiu virgin forest scenic Zone, Zeku and Rishijing walls, Henan Shenghu Fairy Cave and Qingnan grassland scenic Zone.
Huangnan Prefecture has jurisdiction over 1 county-level city, 2 counties, and 1 autonomous county.
Geography and climate
The terrain of Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is high in south and low in north. The southern counties of Zekuand Henan belong to Qinghai south pastoral area. The altitude is above 3,500 meters and it is cold. It is main base for development of animal husbandry in Huangnan Prefecture. To north, there are Jianzha County and Tongren City, with an altitude of 1900-4118 meters.
The climate in Huangnan Prefecture is greatly different between dry and wet seasons; short frost-free period, long sunshine time and strong solar radiation; long and dry and cold winter, short and cool summer; annual average temperature 6.6℃～8.5℃; southern temperature is relatively high, annual average temperature -0.9 ℃～0.3℃.
The prefecture’s annual average temperature is -0.9℃～8.5℃. The prefecture’s annual average precipitation is 329-505 mm. The frost-free period is 14 to 173 days, including 147 to 173 days in northern warm area and 14 to 21 days in southern low temperature area.
Population and ethnic group
As of end of 2019, total population of Huangnan Prefecture was 280,229. Among total population, Han population accounts for about 6%; ethnic minorities account for 94% of total population, of which Tibetans account for 68.55%; Huis account for 6.52%; Tu people account for 3.91%; Salars account for 0.66%; Mongolians account for 13.98%; others Ethnic minorities accounted for 0.3%. There are 15 ethnic groups including Tibet, Mongolia, Han, Hui, Tu, Salar and Baoan.
In 670 AD, Tubo kingdom conquered Tuyuhun regime, Huangnan area became area of competition between Tang dynasty and Tubo kingdom
In 709 AD, Huangnan area became to be under jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom
In 1370 AD, Hezhou Wei and Bili Wanhu Mansion were established as Bili Thousand Husho, under jurisdiction of nomadic tribes in southern Huangnan.
In 1375 AD, Bili Qianhusuo was set up, Huangnan area was under its jurisdiction
In 1426 AD, Tongren and Zeku areas were ruled by living Buddha of Longwu Monastery, which gradually formed a unified political and religious governance system in Repkong area.
From 1537 AD to 1619 AD, Huangnan area was controlled by Hunzabatur of Tumed Ministry of Mongol.
In 1726 AD, part of Huangnan area was under rule of Xining; some other parts of Huangnan area were ruled relatively by Lintao Prefecture, Xining Prefecture, Hezhou Prefecture, and Lanzhou Prefecture in Gansu
In 1929, Qinghai Province was established. Part of Huangnan area was directly under jurisdiction of Qinghai province.
In 1953, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Region (prefecture-level) was approved to be set up
In 1954, Henan Mongol Autonomous Region (county level, renamed as autonomous county in 1955) was established.
In 1955, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Region was changed to Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.