Haidong City is a prefecture-level city under jurisdiction of Qinghai Province, located in eastern Qinghai Province.
It is named because it is located east of Qinghai Lake. Yellow River runs across its south area, Huangshui River runs through in the middle, and Datong River runs through its north section. Haidong city has a total area of 13,200 square kilometers and municipal area is Ledu District.
Haidong City borders Haibei Prefecture in north, Xining City and Hainan Prefecture in northwest, Huangnan Prefecture in southwest, Gannan Prefecture and Linxia Prefecture of Gansu Province in southeast, Lanzhou City of Gansu Province in east, and Wuwei City of Gansu Province in northeast.
Haidong City is with a long history. There was humans living as early as Neolithic Stone Age. Many sites of Majiayao Culture, Qijia Culture, Xindian Culture and Kayo Culture have been discovered
National key units
Qutan Temple （Drotsang Monastery）
Quezang Temple （Chubzang Ganden Migyurling）
Red Army (West Road) Revolutionary Site on Xunhua
Wendu Temple and former residence of Panchen Lama
Dandou Temple （Detsa Tashi Choding Monastery）
Youning Temple （Gonlung Jampaling）
The ancient buildings of Salar mosque
Tianyoude Wine Workshop
There are 2 municipal districts and 4 autonomous counties under Haidong City’s jurisdiction.
Geography and climate
Haidong City is about 125 kilometers long from east to west and 180 kilometers wide from north to south with an altitude of 1650-2835 meters above sea level
Haidong City belongs to transitional mosaic zone from Loess Plateau to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Haidong City is high cold, arid, long sunshine time, strong solar radiation, large temperature difference between day and night, small temperature difference between winter and summer, large difference in climate geographical distribution, obvious vertical changes, temperature decreases with altitude, and heavy rainfall increases with altitude.
The northern regions and mountainous areas above 3000 meters above sea level are relatively cold, and Yellow River and Huangshui River valleys at 1700-2500 meters above sea level are relatively warm.
The annual average temperature is about 3.2℃-8.6℃, the highest temperature is 25.1℃-33.5℃, and the lowest temperature is about -18.8℃-25.1℃. The annual average heavy rainfall is 319.2-531.9 millimeters, mostly concentrated between July and September. The frost-free period is about 90 days
Population and ethnic group
As of end of 2017, Haidong City had a permanent population of 1,470,800, and there were ethnic minorities dominated by Hui, Tibetan, Tu, Salar, and Mongolian.
Among permanent population, Han population is 778,305, accounting for 55.72%;
Ethnic minority population is 618,541, accounting for 44.28%. Among them: 132,381 Tibetans, accounting for 9.48%; 273,672 Hui, accounting for 19.59%; 115,008, Tus, accounting for 8.23%; 89,741, Salars, accounting for 6.42%; 6,242, Mongolians, accounting for 0.45%; 1,497 other ethnic minorities, Accounted for 0.11%.
In Neolithic Age, there were human inhabitants
In 121 BC, Han Dynasty set up a military fort to guard against Qiang tribe’s invasion.
In 111 BC, Han Dynasty began to build Xining City, Haidong area was to be Guard fort
In 61 BC, Haidong area was officially included in “prefecture system” of Han Dynasty.
In 213 AD, The west of Haidong area became part of Xiping County
During Sui and Tang dynasties, Haidong area once became political and military center of northwestern region
After “An-Shi Rebellion”, Haidong area was under control of Tubo kingdom for nearly a hundred years.
In 1097 AD, Song Dynasty army invaded and occupied Haidong area
In 1104 AD, Jiao Si Luo regime fell, and Song Dynasty changed Shanzhou to Xining Prefecture.
In 1119 AD, After the fell of Northern Song Dynasty, Jin and Xixia kingdom occupied Haidong area for about a century.
In 1227 AD, Haidong area was incorporated into Mongolian Khanate.
In 1261 AD, Haidong area was under jurisdiction of Xining Prefecture.
In 1281 AD, Xining Prefecture was governed by Gansu province
In 1291 AD, Hui people migrated into Qinghai, and part of them were cultivated in Haidong area
During Ming and Qing dynasties, Haidong area was under jurisdiction of Xining Wei
In 1978, Ping An County was established from Huangzhong County, and Haidong Region was established to govern Minhe, Ledu, Huangzhong, Huangyuan, Pingan County, Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, Hualong Hui Autonomous County, Xunhua Salar Autonomous County.