Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, in short “Hainan Prefecture”, is an autonomous prefecture under the jurisdiction of Qinghai Province. The autonomous prefecture seat is Gonghe County. It is one of the eight prefecture-level administrative regions in Qinghai. It is adjacent to Haidong City and Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the east, Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the west, Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the south, and Qinghai Lake and Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the north.
Hainan Prefecture is 260 kilometers wide from east to west, and 270 kilometers long from north to south, covering an area of 44,500 square kilometers, accounting for 6.18% of the total area of Qinghai Province. There are undulating mountains, long rivers, dense forests and abundant tourism resources, including Qinghai Lake, Longyangxia Reservoir, Guide Ancient City, Futong City, Guide Yellow River Valley, Jishi Gorge, Deji Hot Springs, Mengda Tianchi, Kambula National Forest Park and many other famous scenic spots. An ideal place for culture and natural beauty.
Geography and climate
Hainan Prefecture is located in the east of Qinghai Province, south of Qinghai Lake. It shows a downward trend from southwest to northeast. As the Yellow River flows through the middle, the entire terrain tilts with the Yellow River as its central axis.
The terrain in the territory is dominated by mountains. Hainan Prefecture is surrounded by mountains, basins are in the center, plateau hills and river valleys are alternated among those. The average altitude of the whole state is above 3000 meters, the highest altitude is 5305 meters, and the lowest altitude is 2168 meters. The Yellow River traverses 20 towns and villages in 5 counties in the central and southern regions, with a length of 411.3 kilometers and 101 tributaries; The 6 inland water systems dominated by Qinghai Lake have more than 40 tributaries.
The climate of Hainan Prefecture is characterized by drought and less rain, long hours of sunshine, strong solar radiation, cool and cold climate, small annual temperature range and large daily range. Spring is dry and windy, summer is short and cool, autumn is wet and rainy, and winter is long and dry.
Due to the complex terrain in the territory, the high and low disparity, and the climate shows the difference of different temperatures, on the basis of the common characteristics of low temperature and low rain, various individual local climate and microclimate characteristics have been formed.
The average temperature in the territory decreases with the increase in altitude.
The annual average temperature is the highest in the valleys of the lower section of the Yellow River, reaching 7°C;
About 3℃ in Gonghe Basin;
Below 0℃ in areas above 3400 meters;
The area above 4000 meters is below -4℃.
The annual precipitation in the southern part of the territory and the wet area of Qinghai Lake is 400-500 mm,
The annual precipitation in Gonghe Basin and Xinghaizike Beach is between 300-360 mm,
The average annual sunshine in the east, north and lake wet areas in the territory is 2900-3040 hours,
The average annual sunshine in the central and southern regions is 2690-2770 hours.
Population and ethnic group
As of the end of 2018, the Han population accounted for 25% of the permanent population; the minority population accounted for 75%. Among them: Tibetans accounted for 66.31%; Huis accounted for 6.84%; Tus accounted for 0.90%; Salars accounted for 0.24%; Mongolians accounted for 0.70%; other ethnic minorities accounted for 0.17%.
Before the Qin and Han dynasties, it belonged to the Qiang Rong region. The ancestors here have entered the era of combined use of bronze and stone, and they have primitive collection and agriculture.
In the early Western Han Dynasty, Hainan area was included in the central dynasty system.
In 60 BC, Heguan County was established in the Hainan area, governing the present-day Guide and the eastern part of Gonghe
In 4 AD, Xihai County was established, and its jurisdiction included most of the present-day Gonghe and Xinghai counties.
After the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Guide and Gonghe were under the jurisdiction of Qianliang, Houliang, Beiliang, and Tuyuhun regime respectively.
In 576 AD, the Northern Zhou Dynasty regained Jiankouzhou in Hannan area, and governed present-day Guide and Guinan.
In 609 AD, the Sui Dynasty captured Tuyuhun regime and then established Heyuan and Xihai counties, governing the south of Daheba in Xinghai County, Tongde and Gonghe.
In 756 AD, Hainan area was under the jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom
In 1099 AD, Jiaosi luo regime occupied the region of the present Guide, and to build Xige city
In 1108 AD, the Song Army recovered Xige City, and rebuilt the Jishi Army, which governed the present Guide County and the region in its east.
In 1131 AD, Jin kingdom occupied Hannan area, and the southeastern part of Hainan area was under the jurisdiction of Jin kingdom
In 1271 AD, Guide was established, it was under the jurisdiction of the Marshal’s Mansion of Tubo kingdom
In 1377 AD, Hainan area was under the jurisdiction of Do Kham
In 1724 AD, the area north of the Yellow River in Guide was under the jurisdiction of Xining County.
In 1913 AD, the Guide Office was changed to a county, and it was under the jurisdiction of Xining Dao of Gansu Province.
In 1953, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Region was established
In 1955, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Region was renamed Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
In 1978, The number of counties under the jurisdiction of the state increased to 6.
In 2001, The prefecture-administered counties were restored to five, which are Gonghe, Guide, Tongde, Guinan, and Xinghai, till now