Haixi Mongolian Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, referred to as Haixi Prefecture, is located in the west of Qinghai Province. It is named after it is located to the west of Qinghai Lake. It is an autonomous prefecture under the jurisdiction of Qinghai Province. Located in the western part of Qinghai Province, the capital of the autonomous prefecture is Delingha City
Haixi Prefecture is connected to Haibei Prefecture in the northeast, Hainan Prefecture in the east, Golog Prefecture in the southeast, Yushu Prefecture in the south, Bayingoleng Prefecture of Xinjiang in the west, Jiuquan City and Zhangye City of Gansu Province in the north. Tanggula Mountain Town in the southwest corner of the province is managed by Haixi Prefecture, it is an enclave adjacent to Nagqu City of Tibet Autonomous Region.
Haixi Prefecture has 3 county-level cities, 3 counties, and 1 administrative committee under its jurisdiction.
County-level cities: Delingha City, Golmud City, Mangya City
Counties: Ulan County, Dulan County, Tianjun County
Administrative Committee: Dachaidan Administrative Committee (administers the towns of Chaidan and Xitieshan that directly are under the jurisdiction of the Haixi Autonomous Prefecture)
Geography and climate
Haixi Prefecture is about 837 kilometers long from east to west, about 486 kilometers wide from north to south, and covers an area of 300,700 square kilometers. It is mainly composed of two parts, the Qaidam Basin surrounded by Kunlun Mountains, Altun Mountains, Qilian Mountains, and the plateau at the northern foot of Tanggula Mountain. Among those, the main region of Qaidam Basin covers an area of 256,000 square kilometers, accounting for 85.28% of the entire prefecture; The altitude of Haixi Prefecture is between 2675 and 6860 meters;
From the edge to the center of the Qaidam Basin, there are five landform types that are mountains, hills, Gobi, plains, lakes and swamps, distributed in a ring shape; the terrain is high in the northwest and low in the southeast. In the southern part of the basin, there are many salty lakes, saline marshes, and a large area of crescent-shaped sand dunes
The northern part of the basin is intermittently distributed with mountains that divide the basin into small basins and valleys.
The altitude of Haixi Prefecture is between 2675 and 6860 meters, and the Tangula area in the south is mostly above 4500 meters.
The Haixi Corridor is named for its location to the west of Qinghai Lake in China, between Qilian Mountains and Kunlun Mountains, crossing the Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province, starting from Xining City to the east via Mangya county in Qinghai and Ruoqiang area in southern Xinjiang. It is one of the important channels connecting the mainland of China and the southern Xinjiang region.
It is also one of the important routes of the ancient Silk Road,and constitutes an important land route linking between the China mainland and western Xinjiang, and even Central Asia, West Asia and Europe.
Due to its vast territory and complex topography, Haixi Prefecture can be divided into the arid desert area of the Qaidam Basin and the alpine area around the basin. The climatic characteristics of the two climate zones are quite different.
The arid desert area of the Qaidam Basin is deep in the hinterland of the mainland and is surrounded by high mountains. It is difficult for the warm and humid airflow from the southwest to enter, so precipitation is scarce and the climate is dry. In Qinghai Province, it is still considered a low-lying area, so the temperature in the province is higher. The mountainous areas around the basin have high terrain and cold climate.
Few precipitation days and small precipitation are the main features of precipitation in Haixi Prefecture. The annual average wind speed of the whole prefecture varies due to the influence of the terrain. The basin is generally 3-4 meters per second, and the annual average wind speed in the mountains is above 4 meters per second.
Population and ethnic group
Haixi Mongolian-Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is an immigrant-type and multi-ethnic region with 35 ethnic groups including Mongolia, Tibet, Han, Hui, Tu and Salar, among which the main ethnic groups are Mongolian and Tibetan. As of the end of 2019, the permanent population of Haixi Prefecture was 520,700.
In 4 AD, Xihai County was established, the east of Haixi area was under its jurisdiction
In the Jin Dynasty, Tuyuhun regime occupied Haixi area.
In 663 AD, Tubo kingdom conquered Tuyuhun regime, Haixi area was under the jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom
In the Yuan Dynasty, Haixi area was under the jurisdiction of Do Kham
At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Haixi area was under the jurisdiction of Xining
In 1725 AD, Haixi area was under the jurisdiction of Mongolian Minister of Affairs.
In the 6th year of the Republic of China (1917), it was governed by Dulan
In the 19th year of the Republic of China (1930), Dulan was changed to Dulan County, which governed the entire territory of Haixi area and being subordinate to Qinghai Province.
In 1949, the Dulan County Government was established to govern the entire Haixi area and directly
In 1952, Dulan County was abolished and the county-level “Mongolia-Tibet Kazakh Autonomous Region of Dulan County” was established.
In 1954, it was transformed into a special district-level “Haixi Meng Tibetan Kazakh Autonomous Region”
In 1955, it was renamed “Hexi Mogol Tibetan Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture”.
In 1958, it was renamed “Qaidam Administrative Committee”.
In 1963, the entire administrative region was called “Haixi Mongolian-Tibetan-Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture”.
In 1966, the state capital was moved to Delingha.
In 1985, it was named “Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture”.