Mangya County, also known as “Mangnai” in Mongolian language, means “Forehead”. It is located in the northwest of Qinghai Province, on the western edge of the Qaidam Basin. It is about 1230km from Xining, the provincil catpital.
It was the mian part of the ancient Silk Road, and now it has been an important transportation hub in northwestern Qinghai. It has Huatugou Airport, Qinghai Section of Ge-Ku Railway and 315 National Road traversing the whole territory. The average elevation of Mangya City is 3,000 meters. It is one of the important mining areas in China and its economy is dominated by the exploitation of petroleum, mirabilite and asbestos.
Best travel time June, July, August, September
Local climate Continental plateau climate
Most popular sites
Yadan landform (Devil Valley), the formation and development of Yadan landform is inseparable from the surface rock structure and climatic conditions. The Huangfeng Mountain, Dafeng Mountain, and Kaitemiri in the administrative area belong to the bare Tertiary geology, and the surface material is mostly loose mudstone and siltstone. Affected by the activities of the Himalayas, under the long-term northwest wind, it has been eroded into a variety of residual mounds and trough-shaped lowlands, forming unique Yadan landform. Some resemble ancient castles, tombs of emperors or thousand army tents, and some resemble horses, camels, lions, tigers, mushrooms, steamed buns, and round tables in different poses.
Emerald Lake is about 32 kilometers away from Mangya City, with Kunlun Mountain in the south and Altun Mountain in the north. It is a rich and beautiful artificial salt lake. The total area of the salt lake is about 26 square kilometers. It belongs to the magnesium sulfate subtype salt lake. There is a rock salt layer at the bottom, which is generally 5 meters thick, and the thickest point is 9.68 meters. The lake is rich in salts such as lithium, potash, and mirabilite. The high-concentration salt water in the salt ponds with different shapes and different depths is called “brine” locally. It is a pit formed after years of mining in the salt lake. Due to the different concentration of minerals, a colorful scene is formed, especially when it is calm and the waves are scattered around like a mirror.
Thousand Buddha Cliff is located in Youyuan valley, 10 kilometers northeast of Huatugou Town. It extends from west to east. Nature made thousands of statues of Buddha, bodhisattvas and arhats are arranged in an orderly manner on the cliffs, layered on top of each other, gradually increasing from small to large, ranging from a few meters to a few tens of meters to hundreds of meters, which seems to be carefully carved.
Gasi Lake covers an area of 104 square kilometers. The water is clear and light blue. It is home to about 244 species of birds such as bar-headed geese, grey geese, swans, black-necked cranes, and swan geese. Due to the suitable climate, the water and grass are beautiful and it is a swan goose. The main habitat where it thrives and thrives has been known as the hometown of swan goose for thousands of years.
Mangnai County Geography and Climate
Mangya City is located in the northwest of the Qaidam Basin, with Ruoqiang County of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to the west, The Greater Caidan to the east, Aksai County of Gansu Province to the northeast, and Golmud City to the southeast. The terrain of Mangya City is high in the northwest and low in the southeast. Altun Mountain stands in its north, and the snow-capped Akaqi Mantage Mountain rises to the southwest, forming a topographic pattern of mountains and basins. Except for the Ahati Mountains in the north and the Akqimantage Mountains in the southwest, which are above 3800 meters above sea level. The basin area, which accounts for about 80% of the total area of Mangya, is between 2689-3800 meters above sea level.
Mangya has a typical plateau continental climate, with little precipitation, large evaporation, dry, cold, oxygen-poor, and dusty weather. The annual average temperature is 4.0°C and the annual precipitation is 47.8 mm. The annual average number of windy days is 36 days, and the annual sunshine hours are 3,128 hours.
Population and ethnic groups
As of 2019, the total population is 63,000, of which the population is mainly concentrated in Mangya Town and Huatugou Town. Other places are deserted and uninhabited, with an average of less than one person per square kilometer. There are 17 ethnic groups in Mangya, including Han, Mongolian, Tibetan, Hui, Salar, Tu, Manchu, Dongxiang, and Uygur. The Han nationality accounts for about 94% of the total population.
In the Han Dynasty, the Mangya area belonged to Ruoqiang State,
In the 4th year of the Chenghe Emperor (320 AD) of Western Jin Dynasty, the Gasi area of Mangya belonged to Tuyuhun regime.
In the 1st year of Xianheng Emperor (670 AD) of Tang Dynasty, Mangya area was under jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom, and since then it lasted for about 200 years.
In the 6th year of Tiansheng Emperor (1028 AD) of Northern Song Dynasty, Mangya area was under jurisdiction of Xixia kingdom.
In the 7th year of Hongwu Emperor (1374 AD) of Ming Dynasty, Mangya area was administrated by the central goverment.
In the 38th year of Jiajing Emperor (1559 AD) of Ming Dynasty, the Tumote tribe of Eastern Mongolia, Ida Khan, led his troops into Mangya area
In the 2nd year of Shunzhi Emperor of Qing Dynasty (1645 AD), Mangya area was under jurisdiction of Mongolia’s Heshuote Gushi Khan
In the years of Kangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty, the Gasi of Mangya area became a military fortress.
In the 3rd year of Yongzheng Emperor (1725 AD) of Qing Dynasty, Mangya area belonged to the pastoral land of Haixi Mongol.
In the 19th year of the Republic of China (1930), Mangya area belonged to Dulan County.
In the 28th year of the Republic of China (1939), Mangya area was under jurisdiction of Tongxin bureau.
In the 30th year of the Republic of China (1941), Mangya area was governed by West Bureau of Kazakh Region.
In the 35th year of the Republic of China (1946), Mangya area was restored to Dulan County.
In 1953, Mangya Town and Huatugou area belonged to the Altonquk Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
In 1964, Mangya Town was established to serve asbestos mines.
In 1985, Huatugou Town was established.
In 1988, the Mangya Administrative Committee was approved to be set up.
In 2018, Mangya City of Haixi Mongolian-Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province was officially established