Mangya County, also known as “Mangnai” in Mongolian language, means “Forehead”. It is located in northwest of Qinghai Province, on western edge of Qaidam Basin, under Haixi Mongolian Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. It is about 1230km from Xining — provincil catpital.
It was mian part of ancient Silk Road, and now it has been an important transportation hub in northwestern Qinghai. It has Huatugou Airport, Qinghai Section of Ge-Ku Railway and 315 National Road traversing whole territory. Average elevation of Mangya City is 3,000 meters. It is one of important mining areas in China and its economy is dominated by exploitation of petroleum, mirabilite and asbestos.
Best travel time From June to September
Local climate Continental plateau climate
Most popular sites
Yadan landform (Devil Valley), formation and development of Yadan landform is inseparable from surface rock structure and climatic conditions. Huangfeng Mountain, Dafeng Mountain, and Kaitemiri in administrative area belong to Bare Tertiary geology, and surface material is mostly loose mudstone and siltstone. Affected by activities of Himalayas, under long-term northwest wind, it has been eroded into a variety of residual mounds and trough-shaped lowlands, forming unique Yadan landform. Some resemble ancient castles, tombs of emperors or thousand army tents, and some resemble horses, camels, lions, tigers, mushrooms, steamed buns, and round tables in different poses.
Emerald Lake is about 32 kilometers away from Mangya City, with Kunlun Mountain in south and Altun Mountain in north. It is a rich and beautiful artificial salt lake. Total area of salt lake is about 26 square kilometers. It belongs to magnesium sulfate subtype salt lake. There is a rock salt layer at bottom, which is generally 5 meters thick, and the thickest point is 9.68 meters. Emerald lake is rich in salts such as lithium, potash, and mirabilite. High-concentration salt water in salt ponds with different shapes and different depths is called “brine” locally. It is a pit formed after years of mining in salt lake. Due to different concentration of minerals, a colorful scene is formed, especially when it is calm and waves are scattered around like a mirror.
Thousand Buddha Cliff is located in Youyuan valley, 10 kilometers northeast of Huatugou Town. It extends from west to east. Nature made thousands of statues of Buddha, bodhisattvas and arhats are arranged in an orderly manner on cliffs, layered on top of each other, gradually increasing from small to large, ranging from a few meters to a few tens of meters to hundreds of meters, which seems to be carefully carved.
Gasi Lake covers an area of 104 square kilometers. Water is clear and light blue. It is home to about 244 species of birds such as bar-headed geese, grey geese, swans, black-necked cranes, and swan geese. Due to suitable climate, water and grass are beautiful and it is a swan goose. Main habitat where it thrives and thrives has been known as hometown of swan goose for thousands of years.
Mangnai County Geography and Climate
Mangya City is located in northwest of Qaidam Basin, with Ruoqiang County of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to west, Dacaidan to east, Aksai County of Gansu Province to northeast, and Golmud City to southeast. Terrain of Mangya City is high in northwest and low in southeast. Altun Mountain stands in its north, and snow-capped Akaqi Mantage Mountain rises in its southwest, forming a topographic pattern of mountains and basins. Except for Ahati Mountains in north and Akqimantage Mountains in southwest, which are above 3800 meters above sea level. The basin area, which accounts for about 80% of total area of Mangya, is between 2689-3800 meters above sea level.
Mangya has a typical plateau continental climate, with little precipitation, large evaporation, dry, cold, oxygen-poor, and dusty weather. Annual average temperature is 4.0°C and annual precipitation is 47.8 mm. Annual average number of windy days is 36 days, and annual sunshine hours are 3,128 hours.
Population and ethnic groups
As of 2019, total population is 63,000, of which population is mainly concentrated in Mangya Town and Huatugou Town. Other places are deserted and uninhabited, with an average of less than one person per square kilometer. There are 17 ethnic groups in Mangya, including Han, Mongolian, Tibetan, Hui, Salar, Tu, Manchu, Dongxiang, and Uygur. Han nationality accounts for about 94% of total population.
In Han Dynasty, Mangya area belonged to Ruoqiang State,
In 4th year of Chenghe Emperor (320 AD) of Western Jin Dynasty, Gasi area of Mangya belonged to Tuyuhun regime.
In 1st year of Xianheng Emperor (670 AD) of Tang Dynasty, Mangya area was under jurisdiction of Tubo kingdom, and since then it lasted for about 200 years.
In 6th year of Tiansheng Emperor (1028 AD) of Northern Song Dynasty, Mangya area was under jurisdiction of Xixia kingdom.
In 7th year of Hongwu Emperor (1374 AD) of Ming Dynasty, Mangya area was administrated by central goverment.
In 38th year of Jiajing Emperor (1559 AD) of Ming Dynasty, Tumote tribe of Eastern Mongolia, Ida Khan, led his troops into Mangya area
In 2nd year of Shunzhi Emperor of Qing Dynasty (1645 AD), Mangya area was under jurisdiction of Mongolia’s Heshuote Gushi Khan
In years of Kangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty, Gasi of Mangya area became a military fortress.
In 3rd year of Yongzheng Emperor (1725 AD) of Qing Dynasty, Mangya area belonged to pastoral land of Haixi Mongol.
In 19th year of Republic of China (1930), Mangya area belonged to Dulan County.
In 28th year of Republic of China (1939), Mangya area was under jurisdiction of Tongxin bureau.
In 30th year of Republic of China (1941), Mangya area was governed by West Bureau of Kazakh Region.
In 35th year of Republic of China (1946), Mangya area was restored to Dulan County.
In 1953, Mangya Town and Huatugou area belonged to Altonquk Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
In 1964, Mangya Town was established to serve asbestos mines.
In 1985, Huatugou Town was established.
In 1988, Mangya Administrative Committee was approved to be set up.
In 2018, Mangya City of Haixi Mongolian-Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province was officially established