Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County is abbreviated as Tianzhu County, also known as “Pari County” OR “Bairi County“.
It was called “Hwarei” in ancient times, meaning “land of heroes”. It is located in central part of Gansu Province. It borders Yongdeng County to south, Jingtai County to east, Wuwei City and Gulang County to north, Sunan County to northwest, and Menyuan, Huzhu and Ledu of Qinghai Province to west.
It is 143 kilometers wide from east to west and 158 kilometers long from north to south. Total area is 7,149 square kilometers. Tianzhu County is now a county of Gansu province, however, it was part of Amdo region in ancient time
In 1936, The first word of “Tian Tang monastery” and “Zhu Gong monastery” were taken to be used of naming this county as “Tianzhu”. Tianzhu Autonomous Region was established in 1950. Then after, it was changed to Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County in 1955
Best travel time From June to October
Local climate Continental plateau climate
Most poppular sites
Dongping Ancient Cultural Site, There are 2 Neolithic Majiayao cultural Machang-type sites in Luojiawan and Xiaogou Village, Dongping Township on west bank of Datong River, and a large number of valuable cultural relics have been unearthed. Its discovery shows that Tianzhu area entered clan commune in late Neolithic 4,000 years ago. Matrilineal and patrilineal lines alternated, but matrilineal clan commune system was still a typical social stage.
Wushaoling Great Wall, trenches, and beacon piers, On east side of Ganxin Road, northeast of Anmen Village, Dachaigou Town, and Nanniwan Village, Bei’anyuan Town, Wushaoling, there is a Han Dynasty Great Wall site with a total length of about 10 kilometers; Shidonggou Ming Great Wall in Jinqiangyi Village, Dachaigou Town is relatively well-preserved, about 2000 meters long.
Tian Tang Monastery is also known as “Chorten Tang Tashi Dargeyling“, It was originally Tibetan Bon religion monastery built during reign of Emperor Xuanzong (AD 806-822) of Tang Dynasty. It converted to be a Kargyu monastery after visited by Karmapa IV Rolpei Dorje in AD 1360. Then after it was destroied by Mongol tribes, finally it surfaced as a Gelug pa establishment
Zhugong monastery is a Gelug monastery, also known as “Ganden Le Cherang“. Zhugong Temple was founded in fifth year of Emperor Yongzheng (AD 1727) of Qing Dynasty. Because monks who founded monastery belonged to Drigung Kagyu sect, therefore this monastery was named Zhugong monastery, that is homophonic of Drigung Monastery. At that time, there were more than 80 monks. In fifth year of Emperor Tongzhi (AD 1866) and 21st year of Emperor Guangxu (1895) of Qing Dynasty, Zhugong monastery was destroyed twice during war, and later rebuilt as a Gelug monastery
Shimen monastery is also known as “Paling Tosam Dargeyling“. Located in Shimen Town, 13 kilometers away from county seat, it was built in early years of Emperor Chongzhen of Ming dynasty. Precious cultural relics preserved include relics of Fifth and Sixth Dalai Lama and Ming Dynasty stone relief statue of Marici deva.
Huazang monastery is also known as “Pari Rabgye Gompa“. Located in county seat, it was built in Qing Dynasty. After reopening in 1980s, there was a Great assemblly hall and a large monk’s dormitory, it is main places for religious people in county to conduct religious activities.
Dongda monastery is located in Saishisi Town, southwest of Tianzhu County, it was built in 47th year of Emperor Wanli (1620) of Ming dynasty and with a history of more than 500 years. In history, many eminent monks of Sakya and Kagyu sects had visited Dongda monastery and presented a large number of Buddhist scriptures, Buddha statues and pagodas, all of which were to help to gradually prospering this monastery
Dalong monastery is also known as “Taklung Gon Ganden Choling“, it is located in northeast of Tianzhu County, Songshan tan at southern foot of Mao Mao Mountain. Founder of this monastery Lobsang Tenpa· Chokyi Nyima was a monk of Dalong family of Kagyu Pa, so it was called Dalong Monastery, and later, it was converted to be a Gelug pa monastery.
Geography and climate
Tianzhu County is located at intersection of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loess Plateau and Inner Mongolia Plateau. Its terrain is high in northwest and low in southeast, with an altitude of 2040-4874 meters. Landform is dominated by mountains, and Wushaoling in middle of county stretches from east to west.
Climate of Tianzhu County is bounded by Wushaoling Mountain. shouth of Wushaoling Mountain has a continental plateau monsoon climate and north of Wushaoling Mountain has a temperate continental semi-arid climate. Its variable weather in spring, cold waves and strong winds; cooler climate in summer and increased precipitation; autumn, wet and rainy in the first half of autumn, rapid temperature drop in latter autumn, and sharp decrease in precipitation; dry, cold and sunny in winter.
Annual precipitation generally decreases from northwest to southeast. Haxi area in northwest has an annual precipitation of 500-600 mm, and Huang-niang-niang-tai area is the largest precipitation center at 632 mm.
Population and ethnic group
As of end of 2019, Tianzhu County has a population of 181,000, with 28 ethnic groups including Tibetan, Han, Tu, Hui, Mongolian, among which ethnic minorities account for 37% of total population and Tibetans account for 82% of ethnic minority population.
Geographical Indication Products
Haxi Ginseng Fruit is produced in Haxi Town, Tianzhu County. Fruit is juicy, has no seeds in abdomen, and with rich in vitamin C and six trace elements required by human body.
Tianzhu White Yak, with pure white coat, is a yak breed with both meat and hair. In 1998, White Yak Breeding Experimental Farm was assessed by Gansu Provincial Animal Husbandry Bureau as “Key Breeding Livestock and Poultry Farm in Gansu Province”
Tianzhu County Brief history
During dynasties of Xia, Shang, and Zhou; Tianzhu area was nomad area
In Qin dynasty, Tianzhu area was ruled by Ruzhi tribe
In early Han Dynasty, Tianzhu area was occupied by Huns;
During reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, Tianzhu area belonged to Wuwei County
During period of Sui dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Tianzhu area also belonged to Wuwei County
In Five Dynasties, it belonged to Tubo kingdom
In Northern Song Dynasty, Tianzhu area belonged to Xiliang Prefecture; after 1036 AD, it was occupied by Xixia kingdom
In Yuan Dynasty, Tianzhu area separately belonged to Xiliang Prefecture and Zhuanglang County.
In Ming Dynasty, Shaanxi Xingdu Division was established, Tianzhu area was under jurisdiction of Zhuang Langwei
In Qing Dynasty, Tianzhu area was under jurisdiction of Liangzhou Prefecture
At beginning of Republic of China, Tianzhu area was under jurisdiction of Pingfan County;
In 16th year of Republic of China (1927), Pingfan County was changed to Yongdeng County;
In 25th year of Republic of China (1936), Tianzhu area was named after the first words of “Tian Tang monastery” and “Zhu Gong monastery”, and being under jurisdiction of Yongdeng County;
In 29th year of Republic of China (1940); Tianzhu Township was established
In 1949, Tianzhu District was established
In 1950, Tianzhu Autonomous Region (county level) was established;
In 1950, Tianzhu Autonomous Region was renamed as Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous Region
In 1955, Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous Region was renamed Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, which is under jurisdiction of Wuwei Prefecture;