Gongbo Gyamda is a subordinate county to Nyingchi. In Tibetan, it means “the entrance to a valley with a large depression”. Gongbo Gyamda is the only place where the Sichuan-Tibet and Yunnan-Tibet routes must pass. It is rich in historical and cultural accumulation and fascinating natural scenery. It is the birthplace of the Niyang River and has famous scenic spots such as Basongcuo, Taizhao Ancient City, and Baga Temple. The peach blossoms in Gongbo Gyamda County are the last place where the peach blossoms in Nyingchi, among of which, Laru Village is the best place to see peach blossoms in Gongbo Gyamda County
Best travel time: August to September
Local climate: plateau climate
The peach blossom : The middle of April
Most popular view spots
Basongcuo lake Basongcuo, which means “Three Rock Lake” in Tibetan, is located in Cuogao Township, 83 kilometers away from the county seat. It is a famous sacred lake and holy land of the Nyingma Sect. The lake has an average elevation of 3465 meters, crescent-shaped, with a total area of 37.5 square kilometers, and the average depth of the lake is more than 60 meters. The lake is surrounded by mountains, dense virgin forests, and a wide variety of animals and plants. In the center of the lake, there are Cuozong Temple and “Peach and Pine Trees” on Tashi Island. There are also scenic spots by the lake, such as the “Qiuzi Cave”, “Lotus Cultivation Cave”, “King Gesar Archery Test”, and the ancient castles of Xueka Village. The Cuegao Lake Cora Festival is held every year on the 15th day of 4th month in the Tibetan calendar
Taizhao Ancient City It is located in Taizhao Village. In the Qing Dynasty, it was developed from a post and barracks into a city. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the city had a large population and numerous shops. In the scenic area, ancient buildings such as the Taizhao Dzong Government and Taizhao Ancient Post Station were restored, and the Taizhao Ancient City Museum was newly built.
Xiuba Castle Xiuba Castle is one of the largest and most well-preserved Castle in this county. The castle was built in the late Tang Dynasty and has a history of more than 1,600 years.
The ancient castle complex is located in Xiuba Village and was built in the late Tang Dynasty. It includes 5 forts of different heights, separated by 30 to 50 meters, covering an area of more than 800 square meters. The castle is about 50 to 60 meters high. It is made of slabs and wooden boards. It is hollow and has no roof. It has a twelve prism shape in appearance and an octagonal shape inside. The top floor of the castle is expected to have holes for observation or defense. The castle can also set off wolf-smoke to transmit information to a distance. Surrounded by stone barracks, the castle is easy to defend and difficult to attack.
Baga monastery (Paga monastery) Baga monastery is located in Niangpu Township and was built in the period of the Fifth Dalai Lama, belonging to the Gelug Sect. There were relics of Tsongkhapa’s clothes, hats, shoes and socks in the temple. The Paga sacred mountain at the back of the temple resembles the goddess Dorje Pam. The cave of the goddess Dorje Pam on the mountainside is called the “sacred cave”, and there is also the “Paga sacred spring”. “And other attractions.
Environment and climate
Gongbo Gyamda County is located in the transition zone from the valleys of southern Tibet to the alpine valleys of eastern Tibet. It is a deep-cut alpine valley landform with an average elevation of 3,600 meters. It is adjacent to Bayi District and Bomi County of Nyingchi City to the east, Jiali County of Nagqu City to the north, Mozhugongka County of Lhasa City to the west, and to the south of Milin County, Lang County, Jiacha County and Sangri County of Tsetang.
The county is 180 kilometers long from east to west, 71 kilometers wide from north to south, with a total area of 11,650 square kilometers. It is 270 kilometers away from downtown Lhasa and 130 kilometers away from Nyingchi City. It belongs to the temperate semi-humid plateau monsoon climate, the east is mild and humid, the forest is dense, the west is cold and dry, and it is shrub meadow vegetation. The Niyang River, a tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, runs through the entire territory.
Gongbo Gyamda Ethnic group
Gongbo Gyamda County is almost a single Tibetan residential area, the Tibetans, Monba and Luoba ethnic groups are the main residents, and accounting for 93.51% of the total population; the rest are some Chinese Han people, Hui people, Sala people, Manchu people, Miao people, Yi people, Tu people and Pumi people,
Gongbo Gyamda Brief History
–In the 1st century AD, Xia Chi, the seventh-generation Zanpu eldest son of the Yalong Xibuye tribe, fled to Gongbu and became the ruler of the ancient Gongbu region. He was known as the King of Gonggabu in history.
–The second son, Nie Chi, fled to Niangbo, and later became the king of Niangbo, known in history as Niangzun Jebu (the king of Niangzun), and the ancient Jiangda area was ruled by the king of Niangbo.
–In the 7th century, Songtsen Gampo unified the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, established the Tubo regime, and divided its ruling area into five Rus. Gongbo Jiangda belongs to Yaoru’s rule. Because the descendants of Nangbo kings have the blood of the Zanpu royal family, according to the covenant, the Gongbo area became the traditional hereditary territory of Nangbo descendants.
–In 869 AD, in the Tibetan calendar year of the Ox (ten years of Tang Xiantong), the Tubo regime collapsed. After that, Tibet fell into a separatist period of more than four hundred years, forming a separatist regime ruled by descendants of the Tubo royal family and nobles. The territory of Gongbo Jiangda was still ruled by the descendants of King Nangbo.
–In 1260 AD, the fourth Raojiong Year of the Iron Monkey in the Tibetan calendar (the first year of Jingding in the Southern Song Dynasty), Tubo was annexed to Mongolia, and 13 Wan-Hu (“Wan-Hu” means “Ten thousand households”) were established in Tibetan areas. Gongbu Jiangda area is close to the jurisdiction of Drigung Wan-hu and Pazhu Wan-hu. It is greatly influenced by Drigung Wan-hu and Pazhu Wan-hu who believe in the Kagyu sect. However, due to its relatively remote location and far from the center of governance, it remains relatively independent.
–From the middle of the 13th century to the middle of the 14th century, the Yuan Dynasty established local government, and Gongbujiangda was under its jurisdiction.
–In the 7th year of Hongwu in the Ming Dynasty (AD 1374), the Ming Dynasty set up the Xi’an Command Envoy in Hezhou to govern all Tibetan areas. Later, it was reorganized to set up the Wusi Zangdu Commanding Envoy, and Gongbujiangda was under the jurisdiction of it.
–In the 15th year of Chongzhen in the Ming Dynasty (1642, the seventh year of Chongde in the Qing Dynasty, the 11th year of the Rao Jong water horse in the Tibetan calendar), the 5th Dalai Lama established the Ganden Pozhang regime. Later, Gyamda Dzong and Xueka Dzong were established. Because it borders the Gongbu region at the lower reaches of the Niangqu (Niyang River) where Gyamda is located, and is separated by no natural mountains and rivers, and the culture and living customs of the two places are close, Gyamda then was gradually incorporated into the Gongbu area and is called Gongbu Gyamda. It means the Gyamda of Gongbo.
–In May 1951, the Bomi Division of Work Committee was established, and Gongbu Jiangda was under its jurisdiction.
–In January 1960, it was changed to Gongbujiangda County.
–In February 1986, the Nyingchi Prefecture was restored and Gongbujiangda County was restored to it.
–In March 2015, the Nyingchi area was abolished and the prefecture-level Nyingchi City was established. Gongbujiangda County was under the jurisdiction of Nyingchi City.
The Tibetan Buddhist sects in Gongbujiangda County mainly include Nyingma Sect (Red Sect), Kagyu Sect (White sect) and Gelug Sect (Yellow Sect). In addition, a small number of farmers and herdsmen believe in the traidtion Tibetan religion — Bon religion.
The Nyingma School was introduced around the 13th century
The Kagyu School was introduced around the 12th century
The Gelug School was introduced in the middle of 16th century
Most farmers and herdsmen in Gongbo Gyamda County celebrate the Tibetan New Year, the traditional Tibetan festival, which lasts from 29th of the 12th month to the 15th of the first month of a new year.
The Spring Sowing Festival (Sowing Festival, Trial Seeding Festival) is held on an auspicious day in the first month. Young men and women dressed in costumes pull bulls, help plows, fertilize, and sow seeds, praying to the gods of the land to bless the harvest; then the villagers drink, sing, and dance. .
The Sagadawa Festival (Release Festival) on April 15th of the Tibetan calendar is the anniversary of the birth, enlightenment and death of Sakyamuni. For the good and longevity, people release fish, cattle, sheep, horses and other animals on this day.
From May 1st to 15th of the Tibetan calendar is the Linka Festival. People dressed in costumes go to Linka for fun and picnics.
The four villages of Langse, Xuba, Garang, and Dingdang in Bahe Town celebrated the Gongbu New Year on the first day of the tenth month of the Tibetan calendar. Legend has it that “Hor” invaded southeastern Tibet more than 700 years ago. The King of Gongbu led the men of Gongbu on the expedition. It was September. In order to allow soldiers to go on the expedition after the New Year, the New Year was advanced to the first day of 10th Month of Tibetan calendar. Since then, the Gongbu area has formed the custom of celebrating the New Year in the first day of tenth month of the Tibetan calendar. Compared with the Tibetan New Year in other regions, Gongbu New Year has obvious characteristics of the forest area, with customs such as “casting out ghosts”, inviting dogs to eat, eating “knot”, carrying water, and offering sacrifices to the goddess of harvest.
The Cuogao Lake Cora Festival is held on the 15th day of the 1st month and 4th month of the Tibetan calendar. On the 15th day of the first month, the monks and nuns chant, pray, and simmer mulberries on the dam. On April 15th, believers from all over the country gathered here, erected new sutra poles, held Buddhist activities, and circled the lake clockwise; people hung “wind horses” and small prayer flags on the branches and danced the traditional dance “Geng”. The village held a folk dance competition.
Every year during the autumn harvest season on the fourth day of the sixth month of the Tibetan calendar, the “Qu Guo” festival is held in Jieding Village. The villagers first held the “Qu Guo” ceremony (carrying the sutras walk around the fields to make cora), and then the honorable people walked along the “sacred ruins” with the nine palaces and eight diagrams, followed by young men holding prayer flags and portraits of the land gods, playing drums and trumpets, and a young woman who sings the song “Mani” wishing a good harvest. Then went to Gadogang Temple walking around the temple for three times, the abbot offered hadhas to the team members, the team sang and danced around the prayer flags, praying for good weather, auspicious happiness, and then sent the sutra into the temple, eating picnics, dancing (Guozhuang)
Gongbo Gyamda County belongs to U-Zang dialect of Tibetan dialect,it is one of the three main tibetan dialect, and similar to the Kham dialect; This dialect features 4 tones (high flat tone, high falling tone, low rising tone, low falling tone), 30 consonants and 4 vowels; the basic structure of the sentence is ” Subject-object predicate”, personal pronouns are singular and plural, honorifics are rarely used, and there are many Chinese loan words and some English and Hindi loan words.
Gongbo Gyamda County is located in a high mountain and valley area, with a relatively closed environment. There are many native languages in the territory, including four languages: Ape, Niangpu, Zhula Bahe, and Cuogao (Basong). Among them, the Ape native language is mainly distributed in Zhongsha Township, Jiangda Township, and Gongbujiangda Town; Niangpu native language is mainly distributed in Niangpu, Jiaxing, and Jinda, and they are mostly communicated in Tibetan of northern Tibet; the Zhula and Bahe native languages are mainly distributed In Zhula Township and Bahe Township, the residents of the Zhula River area all use the Zhula dialect; the Cuogao dialect is a unique dialect of the U-Zang dialect, which is only used by the locals of Cuogao Township and some residents of Bahe Township. Few people in other areas can understand it.